This graph shows the probability of 10-minute price variations during 1984-1995. The significant increase in 1987 resulted in black Monday, and the increase in 1990 did not result in a crash, likely because of the influence of the Iraq-Kuwait and Gulf wars causing sluggish stock activity. Source: Kiyono et al. This graph shows the behavior of log returns in the S&P 500 index during 1984-1995. The inset shows the log returns on a 10-minute scale in region C (black Monday). The probability of large fluctuations at this time accompanies the onset of the crash. Source: Kiyono et al. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Physicists Predict Stock Market Crashes (2006, February 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-02-physicists-stock.html Although stock prices fluctuate, the variations across the overall market are relatively small, as well as similarly random (or “Gaussian”) on a large time scale. Nobody knows what causes the giant drops that result in market crashes, except that crashes involve a variety of factors. Explore further New study: How much do climate fluctuations matter for global crop yields? “If the same characteristics can be observed in other stock indices, our approach may be applicable to quantitative risk evaluation,” the scientists reported. Does an increasing probability of price fluctuations necessarily mean a crash will occur? Not at all, since even the most statistically promising analysis cannot account for external factors. For example, the team observed extreme price fluctuations in log returns before 1990. However, because the Iraqi attack on Kuwait in August 1990 and the Gulf War in 1991 led to declining stock prices and action, the internal dynamics of the market underwent a radical change and a phase transition and critical point did not occur.Citation: Kiyono, Ken, Struzik, Zbigniew R., and Yamamoto, Yoshiharu. Criticality and Phase Transition in Stock-Price Fluctuations. Physical Review Letters. 96, 068701 (2006)By Lisa Zyga, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com On Monday, October 19, 1987 – infamously known as “black Monday” – the Dow fell 508 points, or 22.9%, marking the largest crash in history. Using an analytical approach similar to the one applied to explore heart rate, physicists have discovered some unusual events preceding the crash. These findings may help economists in risk analysis and in predicting inevitable future crashes. While analyzing stock-price fluctuations based on critical dynamics and phase transitions, physicists from the University of Tokyo (Kiyono et al.) have observed some surprising behavior preceding market crashes. During the year before black Monday, the team found that the probability of large price fluctuations increased unexpectedly (“non-Gaussian” behavior), as if approaching a critical point signifying a major change. At the critical point – or day of the crash – an abrupt phase transition did indeed occur as the probability model changed from being scale dependent to scale invariant. Scale invariance, which in this case meant that the prices no longer depended on the time scale, is characteristic behavior observed at a critical point.“Because the probability of the occurrence of extremely large fluctuations shows a sharp increase before black Monday…our observations suggest that, through the internal dynamics, the system gradually approaches a critical point where inherent, multi-scale fluctuations are likely to result in a crash,” said the scientists in a study published in a recent Physical Review Letters. This “critical” model builds on the idea that the volatility, or variation, of price changes can quantitatively measure how much the market may fluctuate. In fact, volatility – not actual price – is the key input in Black and Scholes’ “option pricing” model on price variation over time, developed in 1973 and highly influential in financial markets.However, volatility alone could not explain the occurrence of large price fluctuations found by Kiyono et al. The team also studied price changes on a short (10-minute) time scale, and discovered a probability of large fluctuations on this scale, as well. This similarity of fluctuations on different time scales resembles the behavior of earthquakes and heartbeats, which are also scale invariant. The physicists think that the small-scale stock price fluctuations may have caused highly clustered behavior of individual traders, which then grew rapidly through internal interactions in the stock market.
Active imaging has broad applications across disciplines that range from autonomous driving to microscopic imaging of biological samples. Key requirements for these applications include high accuracy with timing, fast acquisition rates, dynamic operating ranges and high detection sensitivity to image objects hidden from a camera’s view. Remote sensing and automated applications demand acquisition ranges from <1 meter to the kilometer scale. Non-line-of-sight imaging relies on obtaining encoded information via the few returning photons of multiply scattered indirect light, in addition to the directly reflected light. To enable these applications, ultra-sensitive detectors were developed to record individual photons returning from a pulsed source of illumination. Single -photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are one of the most sensitive time-resolved detector technologies that can be produced using the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) manufacturing process. The SPADs were rapidly established as a core detector technology for 3D imaging.In its principle-of-function, SPADs are reverse-biased photodiodes that operate in Geiger mode, i.e. above their breakdown voltage. When photons are incident on the active surface of a SPAD, a time stamped electron avalanche can be triggered. Repeated time stamping of photons returning from a synchronously pulsed illumination source that typically operate at MHz rates can accumulate a histogram of photon counts in time. The resulting histogram documents the approximate intensity of the returning light pulse to recover and characterize the distance, reflectance and 3D geometry of an object hidden from view. The performance of the proposed method was assessed on two scenes with highly varying reflectance and depth profiles, which included the Statue of David and a Bas-relief scene. Both instances contained objects with complex geometries and varying reflectance properties including specular behavior for the "Statue of David" and Lambertian reflectance with spatially varying albedo in the 'Bas-relief" scene. For both scenes the scientists captured a ground truth reference measurement (information provided by empirical evidence) with a 5% neutral density filter, which eliminated pileup distortions by damping the source intensity. The hardware of the system contained a time-resolved sensor, pulsed laser, illumination and collection optics. The setup also had a set of scanning mirrors to achieve a raster scan illumination pattern. The timing of photon arrivals was captured with a PicoHarp 300 time-correlated single photon counting module. The illumination source was a 450 nm or 670 nm picosecond laser (generating full width at half maximum FWHM, pulse widths of 90 ps and 50 ps). The collection optics consisted of a 75 m objective lens, 30 mm relay lens and a microscope objective, designed to extend the field of view of the SPAD across the area scanned by the source of illumination. The experimental measurements served as input for the proposed method and were acquired without any filters in the optical path. Depth and albedo reconstructions along with corresponding error maps were obtained during the study. The results verified that the proposed method achieved high-quality reconstructions unaffected by scene-dependent pileup or shot noise (electronic noise associated with the particle nature of light). The results were compared to conventional methods, such as the log-matched filter-estimate and Coates' pileup correction method that did not as effectively suppress pileup and suffered from scene-dependent depth precision. In contrast, the method introduced by Heide et al. achieved sub-picosecond accuracy. Experimental hardware for 3D imaging. The schematic illustration shows the ‘Statue of David’ scene, source of illumination and the procedure of time-stamping for image reconstruction. Credit: Scientific Reports, Doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35212-x Experimental reconstructions. A recorded spatio-temporal distribution of photon counts. (a,e) is processed to estimate a 3D point cloud (b,c,f,g) that contains both depth and albedo information, here shown for two different scenes (photographs shown in (d,h)). The color-coded errors maps (d,h) directly compare the results of several depth estimation techniques, including log-matched filtering, Coates’ method followed by Gaussian fit (on high-flux measurement), and the proposed method. Credit: Scientific Reports, Doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35212-x Explore further Citation: Sub-picosecond photon-efficient imaging using single-photon sensors (2018, December 17) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2018-12-sub-picosecond-photon-efficient-imaging-single-photon-sensors.html Sub-picosecond 3D Imaging Framework. (a) A collimated, pulsed laser illuminates the scene at a single point. The laser is laterally scanned using a 2-axis mirror galvanometer. Timing and control electronics time-stamp each detected photon arrival relative to the last emitted pulse and accumulate these events in a histogram of spatio-temporal photon counts (b). This histogram is processed to estimate both reflectivity and depth information (c). Two points are highlighted, one corresponding to high-flux (d) and the other to low-flux (e) measurements. Whereas the latter are noisy, high-flux measurements suffer from pileup distortion which introduce a significant bias for the depth estimation of conventional algorithms. The proposed estimation method accurately models both of these scenarios, allowing for reflectance information and travel time to be estimated with sub-picosecond accuracy from severely distorted measurements. Credit: Scientific Reports, Doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35212-x Optimal photon count regime. Depth reconstruction accuracy for varying photon counts for the 450 nm Alphalas LD-450-50 laser (FWHM of 90 ps). The conventional log-matched filter, Coates’ method, and the proposed method are compared. The optimal number of photon counts lay around the unconventional region of 1 photon detected per pulse on average, independent of the impulse response and for a broad range of histogram bin widths. Credit: Scientific Reports, Doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35212-x © 2018 Science X Network Depending on the expected application, SPADs can operate in free running mode (that allows all photon events to be simultaneously detected at all arrival times) or gated mode (where only photons in a specific time window between pulses are detected). All applications are subject to a fundamental phenomenon known as pileup distortion that severely limits accuracy. Pileup can inherently limit the working principle of the SPAD detector. For example, after each triggered electron avalanche, the detector requires quenching prior to detecting further photon arrival events. During this 'dead time' (ten to hundreds of nanoseconds), the detector is inactive. This may result in the earlier photons of a single laser pulse triggering an avalanche, while later pulses are likely ignored in the dead time; creating inaccurate skewed measurements known as pileup. The phenomenon can be avoided by operating active imaging systems in a low-flux regime, as seen with state-of-the-art techniques used for first-photon imaging before. However, conditions vary for 3D imaging applications in robotics, biological imaging or automotive sensing as they operate in environments where objects reflecting both high and low numbers of photons are essential for decision making. The large variance in acquired photon counts that results from diverse depths or the varying reflectivity of different objects is crucial for 3D imaging. In this work, Heide et al. introduced a new algorithm of estimation that overcame existing limitations of active 3D imaging systems using free running SPADs. The proposed method improved the accuracy of the existing depth and albedo estimation, across a wide range from low-flux to high-flux measurements. The scientists introduced a probabilistic image formation model that included pileup, with efficient inverse methods derived for depth and albedo estimations. The reconstruction framework jointly estimated all unknown parameters to overcome algorithmic limitations that previously restricted the timing precision. The proposed method allowed highly accurate and fast 3D imaging to open new operating regimes of photon-efficient 3D imaging applicable in conditions with dramatically varying photon counts. The code and data used by Heide et al. to generate the findings of the study will be available on GitHub. In total, the proposed probabilistic image formation model and corresponding inverse methods attained sub-picosecond accuracy for active 3D imaging, despite the laser pulse widths being larger than 50 ps. The novel method achieved high precision across a dynamic range from low-flux to high-flux measurements compared to traditional techniques. In the future, the proposed method can facilitate long-range acquisition by multiplexing multiple pileup affected responses. The proposed innovation paves the way for fast and precise photon-efficient 3D imaging systems, where widely varying photon counts are observed in practice. Applications can range across broad disciplines to include 3D mapping and navigation, art reconstruction and conservation, autonomous driving, vision for robots and machines, geographic information, industrial and microscopic imaging. Single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are promising detector technologies that may be used to achieve active 3D imaging systems with fast acquisition, high timing accuracy and high detection sensitivity. Such systems have broad applications in the domains of biological imaging, remote sensing and robotics. However, the detectors face technical impairments known as pileup that cause measurement distortions to limit their precision. In a recent study, conducted at the Stanford University Department of Electrical Engineering, scientists Felix Heide and co-workers developed a probabilistic image formation model that could accurately model pileup. Using the proposed model, the scientists devised inverse methods to efficiently and robustly estimate the scene depth and reflectance from recorded photon counts. With the algorithm, they were able to demonstrate improvements to the accuracy of timing, compared to existing techniques. More importantly, the model allowed accuracy at the sub-picosecond in photon-efficient 3D imaging for the first time in practical scenarios, whereas previously only widely-varying photon counts were observed. The results are now published in Scientific Reports. Journal information: Scientific Reports More information: 1. Sub-picosecond photon-efficient 3D imaging using single-photon sensors doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35212-x , Felix Heide et al, 07 December 2018, Scientific Reports.2. Mapping the world in 3D www.nature.com/articles/nphoton.2010.148 , Brent Schwarz, July 2010, Nature Photonics.3. The correction for photon ‘pile-up’ in the measurement of radiative lifetimes iopscience.iop.org/article/10. … 22-3735/1/8/437/meta, P B Coates, February 1968, Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments, IOP Science.4. Photon-Efficient Computational 3-D and Reflectivity Imaging with Single-Photon Detectors ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7150537 , S. Dongeek et al, July 2015, IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging. Researchers generate 3D images using just one photon per pixel (w/ video) , Nature Photonics , Science This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
It is interesting to witness the mini transformation that Hauz Khas Village is undergoing. From an arty farty jaunt 10 years back to a designers’ den even a few years back, the small urban village, is slowly becoming Delhi’s very own St Germaine. Yes, it is still dotted with designer studios and small shops which stuff themselves with art and quirky posters, but eateries rise above the clutter. No matter where you look, you are bound to hit a restaurant or two. And new ones keep opening before you could say ‘Enter’. We went to one such place on a weekday evening [though going by the rapid metamorphosis HKV is undergoing, you won’t be incorrect if you brand Amour an old restaurant by now], and found it packed to the brim. Quite a feat especially because the patio, cafe and bar boasts of an extensive area. Apart from seating inside, one can also sit out at the terrace if the weather is any good. The décor is impressive, with dim lighting, chandeliers and comfortable high-backed chairs and sofas. We decided to sit out [don’t expect much of a view because the lake is across the road and from the terrace you can only see the parking area around the building, apart from bits of other nearby restaurants] with some decent Seafood salad. It comes with a generous amount of king prawns, Sri Lankan squids, octopus and lots of cherry tomatoes. The menu is a mish mash of Continental and Mediterranean which leaves one with lots of options unless you are a little snobbish [like me] about sticking to particular cuisines. What we liked was the Wild duck confit. The duck was cooked to perfection. However, keep second options ready when you are ordering your drink because the bar needs stocking up. Walk in with lots of time in your hands since the service is sluggish. Overall, could serve as a nice venue for that next party. GRILLED BASA NISCOISE STYLEINGREDIENTS180gm Basa fish5gm Garlic60gm Tomato50gm Potato20gm Green beans20gm Green peas10gm Bell pepper5gm Capsicum15ml Olive oilMustard paste, to tasteSalt, to tastePepper, to tasteMETHODPeel and blanch potato with butter. Trim the green beans and make a bundle. For the sauce, saute garlic in olive oil. Add tomatoes and cook for a few minutes. Finish with seasoning. For the dressing, cut the bell pepper and capsicum. Mix with lemon vinaigrette. Marinade the fish with salt and pepper, lemon juice. Pan sear the basa fish fillets. Arrange delicately on the plate. Serve hot and garnish with garden fresh greens.
Showcasing eight seminal contemporary documentaries that explore and examine a wide range of issues including investigative, biographical and first-person stories reflecting the emotion and drama of the human experience, India International Centre is organizing a festival, Stories from Australia – A Festival of Award Winning Films from 17 to 20 July 2013. With a candid glimpse into a domestic issue unknown to even most Australians, the festival will open with Jennifer Crone’s Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ Divorce: Aussie Islamic Way. The film portrays how couples with differing social and religious customs go about formally breaking up? This will be followed by Closing Ranks – an extraordinary piece of investigative journalism that examines the process of police internal investigations into one of its own. Then The Wind Changed – recipient of the Walkley Documentary Award 2012 will present an in-depth and personal account of a community recovering from a devastating bush fire, demonstrating both empathy and intelligence in story-telling. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixScarlet Road directed by Catherine Scott and Pat Fiske to be screened on 20 July is an astonishing and illuminating insight about sexuality and disability that is surprising, funny, moving, informative and confronting. The Tall Man, powerful and multi-award winning documentary to be screened on 20 July skillfully examines the circumstances surrounding the death of Cameron Doomadgee who swore at a policeman and died 40 minutes later in a watch-house cell. Filmmaker Rick McPhee will personally present Go Back to Where You Came From – Season 1 on 20 July. It is a ground-breaking three part series that challenges a group of Australians – and through them, the viewer, to imagine what life would be like as a refugee.The festival closes with multiple-award winning film, Mrs Carey’s Concert, a contagious and rousing documentary about the passion that music teacher Karen Carey feels for her music. An inspiring documentary in which all 1200 students of a Sydney girl’s school are required to participate in a classical concert at the Sydney Opera House. Many of these films have been shortlisted for the prestigious annual Walkley Awards, which recognizes excellence in Australian journalism across all mediums of broadcast.
When we talk about the food palette, you can’t separate Indians from their spice. Connoisseurs will have you known that a particular wine must be paired correctly with the specific type of food to bring out the right flavour. At Shiro, we got a chance to experience exactly that with the spicy and sweet combinations of food and wines.We were greeted with the sparkling Sula Brut Rose NV Champagne which went quite well with the Korean chilli potato and Malaysian sambal chicken. After, we headed to the live grill where the chef served Thai baby corn, Teriyaki mushroom, misho fish and chicken satay paired with Cono Sur Pinot Noir. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The sushi served included spicy avocado maki, spicy tuna maki and spicy chicken shiitake maki and was paired with Hardys Riesling Gewurztraminer from Australia. The Sula Riesling complimented the hot chicken and coriander dim sums perfectly. The dessert platter of chocolate sushi, coconut and pecan tart was paired with Sula late Harvest Chenin Blanc. Commenting on the wines presented, Cecilia Oldne, the global brand ambassador of Sula said, ‘We have especially arranged this to show how our wines go well with the Indian taste which mostly consists of spicy food. Usually wines are a little difficult to pair with spicy food but the wines we have exhibited hear have a high sugar content which compliments well with the spicy flavour and helps neutralise it.’
History repeats itself. The play Bagiya Banchharam Ki written by Manoj Mitra braces this statement. The play which is a Hindi adaptation of
Kolkata: The state government is planning to introduce an integrated online platform to monitor projects of all its departments.The step has been taken up to ensure that all projects are monitored from a single platform, as it will help in better execution of the projects taken up by all the departments of the state government.Sources in the state secretariat said the preliminary task of introducing the integrated project monitoring system has been carried out and it will be presented before Chief Secretary Malay De within the next one to two weeks. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsOnce the top brass of the state government gives its nod after going through the proforma, or gives certain suggestions, the next step would be taken towards the introduction of the same.It has been further learnt that there was discussion on certain aspects in this connection on Monday. Representatives of some of the crucial departments of the state government, including the state Finance department, were in the meeting where the discussion in this regard has taken place. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedSources said that all the departments are crucial stakeholders of the project, as they have to provide necessary data that has to be corroborated to give a complete shape to the entire project, which will ensure monitoring of all ongoing projects through one single platform. Officials of the Public Health Engineering (PHE) department and Public Works department were also present in the meeting. It has been learnt that there was discussion on monitoring of projects that the PHE department usually takes up. It may be mentioned that Bengal has witnessed a series of development works in the past seven years, after Mamata Banerjee came to power in 2011.Projects were taken up for development of both the urban and rural parts of the state. In the past seven years, flyovers and bridges have been constructed at different places and at the same time, schemes have been taken up that cover a person, starting from his or her birth to death.Moreover, in a bid to ensure that all projects are implemented properly and timely, the Chief Minister visits every district to hold administrative review meetings with concerned officials. She also identifies the work that needs to be carried out for the districts, during the meetings.She always directs officials to take steps for ensuring timely completion of projects during these meetings.It may be mentioned that the Mamata Banerjee government has also introduced the Integrated Finance Management System (IFMS) and it has smoothened the system of managing finance related issues.
Kolkata: The humanitarian face of state Urban Development and Municipal Affairs minister Firhad Hakim came to the forefront in the wee hours on Sunday morning, when he came to the rescue of around 15 people who met with an accident at Dum Dum Park area on VIP Road.According to sources, at around 3.10 am when the minister was returning from Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose International Airport after welcoming the pilgrims who had returned from Haj, he came across a matador that had toppled onto its side, with a number of people found trapped inside the vehicle. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeThe minister immediately got down from his car and drew the attention of the patrolling police. He, along with his guards and the policemen joined hands to rescue the trapped and injured persons. Under the minister’s instructions and supervision, prompt arrangements were made to transport the injured persons to a nearby hospital as soon as possible. A police vehicle and three app cabs that were found on the road at the time were used for carrying the injured. “The minister supervised the entire operation and left only after all the injured persons reached the hospital,” said a close aide of the minister, who was accompanying him. According to police sources, the ill-fated matador was going towards Chakla, the birthplace of Baba Lokenath. Chakla Dham is a well-known pilgrimage site located near Basirhat in North 24-Parganas. “Bengal is known for its unity in diversity and upholding of communal harmony. It is my duty as a public representative to stand by everyone if they are in crisis,” the minister said.
How would anyone think of a Sunday, overlooking a lazy morning and some exciting food? The foodie leaps up within us with high hopes of exotic delicacies as Sundays approach, yet neither of us really feel like taking the responsibility of cooking them. Café Knosh at The Leela Ambience Convention Hotel hosts an array of mouth watering items at brunch for you to indulge in. The all-day-dining restaurant has some of the best gourmet offerings from across the continents. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfWith a variety of choices, this café will cast a spell on you, and make you come back for brunch over and again. There is more than enough room for your whole family to enjoy in the warm and comfortable ambience at the restaurant. With several classy salads and various kinds of soup and starters, you may start your meal carefully keeping in mind not to stuff your tummy with them! There are several more dishes in the menu which you need to try out before satiating your stomach. The extensive buffet has Indian, Chinese, Middle-eastern and Western cuisine available for lunch and dinner. It also features a live pizza oven for the beloved Italian delicacies. Their chicken pumpkin soup is a masterpiece – one would never have wondered how good pumpkin and chicken might taste together in a soup. Those with their hands up for Western dishes will be in awe tasting the baked mushrooms, fried chicken and grilled fish. The soft and creamy mushrooms are a delightful bite, whereas the crispy chicken adds on to the much-needed crunch in a meal. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe thin crust chicken pizza, which comes out fresh from that live oven, is something that you must not miss on your visit to Café Knosh, or you would lose out on heaven! If your palate is more inclined to Indian cuisine you would be on cloud nine to find the variety of vegetarian and non-vegetarian curry based delicacies, varied type of roti and rice. You might not want to gorge on the food with a dry mouth (enter the exquisite drinks!). In case you are fond of mocktails, definitely try the watermelon juice based mocktail or the Virgin Mojito for a refreshing feel. Cosmopolitan – a vodka-based cocktail will uplift your mood with its perfect taste. Moving on to the sweet endings, dessert lovers will go gaga over the exhaustive display of desserts. The mango vanilla mousse melting in your mouth will take you back to fond summer memories with the juicy mango pulp tingling your taste buds. If you are fond of creme brulee and want to try one here, you might not be very overwhelmed, but the tarts will instantly win your heart.